Catalogue Raisonné

P37.001

Bombardment, 1937
Oil on panel
tondo--diameter 42" in.
Dimensions unknown
Signed and dated front left center: PHILLIP/GUSTON/1937
Provenance
Philadelphia Museum of Art, Gift of Musa and Tom Mayer, 2011
Exhibitions
American Artists Congress, New York, NY, "An Exhibition in Defense of World Democracy...Dedicated to the Peoples of Spain and China", December 1937
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY, "1938 Annual Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting", November 02, 1938 - December 11, 1938
Iowa Memorial Union, Iowa City, IA, "Paintings and Drawings by Philip Guston", March 05, 1944 - March 19, 1944 
Midtown Gallery, New York, NY, "Philip Guston", January 15, 1945 - February 10, 1945 
Birmingham Public Library, Birmingham, AL, "[Unknown Title]", June 1948
Gallery 1199, New York, NY, "Social Concern and Urban Realism: American Painting of the 1930s", April 07, 1983 - May 14, 1983 Travelled to:
Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid, Spain, "Philip Guston: Retrospectiva de Pintura", March 01, 1989 - May 08, 1989  Travelled to:
Laguna Art Museum, Laguna Beach, CA, "Dream and Perspective: The American Scene in Southern California, 1930 to 1945", August 23, 1991 - November 03, 1991
Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris, France, "Face a l'Histoire, 1933 - 1996, L'Artiste Moderne Devant L'Evenement Historique", November 06, 1996 - April 07, 1997
Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Fort Worth, TX, "Philip Guston Retrospective", March 30, 2003 - June 08, 2003  Travelled to:
Centre de Cultura Contemporania de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, "En Guerra" (At War), May 17, 2004 - September 26, 2004
Museum of the City of New York, New York, NY, "1936 - 1939: Facing Fascism: New York and the Spanish Civil War", March 23, 2007 - August 12, 2007
National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada, "The 1930s: The Making of 'The New Man", June 06, 2008 - September 07, 2008
Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid, Spain, "Encounters with the 1930s", October 03, 2012 - January 07, 2013
The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, "America After the Fall: Painting from the 1930s", June 05, 2016 - September 18, 2016 Travelled to:
Bibliography
New York Sun. "Anti-Fascist Paintings Shown Here." December 17, 1937, p. 34, illus. in b&w
Miami Daily News. "Artist Hurls 'Bombardment.'" December 19, 1937, illus. in b&w
Chicago Daily Times. "Defense of Democracy." December 21, 1937, p. 24, illus. in b&w (not an article but just a few images with captions)
Des Moines Register. "New York Art Exhibit Is Anti-Fascist Preachment." December 21, 1937, p. 11, illus. in b&w
Look. [Article title unknown]. 1937, illus. in single color, full page
Miller, Harlan. "In Washington: New York Gets Educated To British Royalty." Pittsburgh Press, December 8, 1938, mentioned in text, not illus.
Metzger, Hiram. "Letters and Pictures from LOOK Readers." Look, [1939?], illus. in b&w
1938 Annual Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting. Exh. cat. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1938, cat. no. 12, not illus.
Janson, H. W. "'Martial Memory' by Philip Guston and American Painting Today." Bulletin of the City Art Museum of Saint Louis, December 1942, pp. 34–41, mentioned in text p. 39, not illus.
Daily Iowan. "Prof. Philip Guston's Paintings of Army, Navy on Display." March 5, 1944, mentioned in text, not illus.
Austin American. "2nd in Series of Exhibitions Opens Tuesday: Thon, Guston and Shulkin Work to Be Presented." July 30, 1944, mentioned in text, not illus.
Paintings and Drawings by Philip Guston. Exh. cat. Iowa City: State University of Iowa, 1944, cat. no. 18, not illus.
Breuning, Margaret. "Philip Guston Impresses in New York Debut." Art Digest, January 15, 1945, p. 12, mentioned in text, not illus.
F[rost], R[osamund]. "Guston: Meaning out of Monumentality." ARTnews, February 1, 1945, p. 24, mentioned in text, not illus.
Philip Guston. Exh. cat. New York: Midtown Galleries, 1945, cat. no. 12, not illus., listed as being from 1938
Caldwell, Lily May. "New York Art Exhibit Booked; Gainey, Cotlow Opera Co-Stars." Birmingham News (Alabama), June 6, 1948, p. 12D, mentioned in text, not illus.
Canaday, John. "Two American Painters; Guston and Levine in Mid-Career Are at Opposite Poles." The New York Times, January 3, 1960, section 2, p. B18, mentioned in text, not illus.
Kingston Daily Freeman. "Guston Exhibit Draws Acclaim at Janis Gallery." January 11, 1960, p. 14, mentioned in text, not illus.
Canaday, John. "Vote of Confidence; Ontogeny, Phylogeny, Emerging Images, Exploration and High Hopes in Philip Guston's New Show." The New York Times, February 19, 1961, section Art, p. 19, mentioned in text, not illus.
Canaday, John. "Their Separate Ways: Jack Levine and Philip Guston." In Embattled Critic: View on Modern Art. New York: Noonday Press, 1962, mentioned in text pp. 138-139, not illus.
Ashton, Dore. Yes, but... A Critical Study of Philip Guston. New York: Viking, 1976, illus. in b&w p. 24
Rickey, Carrie. "Philip Guston 1913–1980: Dreaming with His Eyes Open." Village Voice, June 23, 1980, p. 73, mentioned in text, not illus.
Rickey, Carrie. "Gust, Gusto, Guston." Artforum, October 1980, pp. 32–39, mentioned in text pp. 36 and 38, not illus.
Glueck, Grace. "Social Concern and Urban Realism." The New York Times, April 22, 1983, mentioned in text, not illus.
Lippard, Lucy. "Passionate Views of the '30s." In These Times, June 1–14, 1983, mentioned in text, not illus.
Taylor, Robert. "Beyond the Corn, Some Kernels." Boston Sunday Globe, October 23, 1983, section Review, Art, p. A3, mentioned in text, not illus.
Strickland, Edward. "BU Show Exhibits Blacks as Artists and Subjects." Bay State Banner (Dorchester, MA), November 10, 1983, pp. 19, 24, mentioned in text, not illus.
Gambrell, Jamey. "An Art of Protest and Despair." Art in America, December 1983, pp. 92–99, illus. in b&w p. 92
Social Concern and Urban Realism: American Paintings of the 1930s. Exh. cat. American Federation of the Arts, 1983, cat. no. 19, illus. in b&w p. 54
Storr, Robert. Philip Guston. New York: Abbeville Modern Masters, 1986, illus. in color no. 5 p. 10 and mentioned in text p. 14
Mayer, Musa. Night Studio: A Memoir of Philip Guston by His Daughter. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988, illus. in b&w no. 14 (following p. 18)
Fernandez, Horacio. "El Último Perplejo." El Europeo, March 1989, illus. in color p. 74
Gallego, Julian. "El gusto de Guston." ABC (Madrid), March 2, 1989, mentioned in text, not illus.
Serraller, F. Calvo. "Abierta en Madrid una retrospectiva de Guston: En Centro Reina Sofia expone 70 obras del artista que paso del expresionismo abstracto a la figuracion." El País (Madrid), March 2, 1989, mentioned in text, not illus.
Ruiz de Eguino, Iñaki Moreno. "La primera retrospectiva europea de Philip Guston, en Madrid." Diario Vasco (San Sebastián), March 11, 1989, mentioned in text, not illus.
Llorca, Pablo. "Philip Guston: Un pintor muy visceral." Dunia, July 1989, pp. 108–10, mentioned in text p. 110, not illus.
Brandenburg, John. "Seeing Guston's Art Requires a 'Leap' to Dallas." Oklahoman (Oklahoma City, OK), December 24, 1989, section Travel & Entertainment, p. 4, mentioned in text, not illus.
Philip Guston: Retrospectiva de Pintura. Exh. cat. Essays by Mark Rosenthal, Robert Storr, Carrie Rickey, Francisco Calvo Serraller, and Dore Ashton. Madrid: Ministerio de Cultura, Dirección General de Bellas Artes y Archivos, Centro Nacional de Exposiciones, 1989, cat. no. 2, illus. in color p. 33
Abramson, Glenda, ed. The Blackwell Companion to Jewish Culture from the Eighteenth Century to the Present. Oxford: Blackwell, 1989, mentioned in text p. 296, not illus.
Ashton, Dore. A Critical Study of Philip Guston. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990, illus. in b&w p. 24
Anfam, David. Abstract Expressionism. London: Thames & Hudson, 1990, illus. in b&w no. 37 p. 52 and mentioned in text pp. 51 and 52
Dream and Perspective: The American Scene in Southern California, 1930 to 1945. Exh. cat. Laguna Beach: Laguna Art Museum, 1991, Illus. in b&w p. 6
Carrera, J. A. Gonzalez. "La Sala Rekalde de Bilbao exhibe una antologica de dibujos de Philip Guston." El Correo Espanol - El Pueblo Vasco (Bilbao), May 12, 1993, section Cultura, p. 51, mentioned in text, not illus.
Ottinger, Didier. Philip Guston (1913–1980) Oeuvres Sur Papier 1975–1980. Exh. cat. Les Sables d'Olonne: Musée de l'Abbaye Sainte-Croix des Sables d'Olonne, France, 1995, illus. in color (not in exhibition)
Face a l'Histoire, 1933 - 1996, L'Artiste Moderne Devant L'Evenement Historique. Exh. cat. Paris: Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, 1996, illus. p. 189
Mack, Gerhard. "Philip Guston Künstler." Kritisches Lexikon der Gegenwartskunst 36, no. 3 (1997): pp. 1–16, illus. in color on cover and mentioned in text p. 10
Views from Abroad: European Perspectives on American Art 3: American Realities. Exh. cat. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1997, illus. in b&w p. 17 and mentioned in text p. 16
Leydier, Richard. "Philip Guston l'heretique/The Heresies of Philip Guston." Art Press, October 2000, pp. 36–41, mentioned in text p. 38, not illus.
Ottinger, Didier, and Philip Roth. Philip Guston: Peintures 1947–1979. Exh. cat. Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou, 2000, illus. in b&w p. 11
Kutner, Janet. "Bold Strokes: Modern of Fort Worth Provides Grand Setting for Philip Guston's Daring Canvases." Dallas Morning News, March 30, 2003, section Arts Sunday, pp. 1C, 3C, illus. in color p. 3C
Anfam, David. "Telling Tales: Philip Guston in Retrospect." Artforum International, May 2003, pp. 132–39, 192, illus. in color p. 134 and mentioned in text pp. 132, 134, and 192
USA Today (West Babylon, NY). "Philip Guston: Abstract Expressionism's Provocative Pioneer and Ultimate Critic." November 1, 2003, mentioned in text
Minthorn, David. "Exhibit Honors Acclaimed Guston." Star-Gazette (Elmira, NY), November 2, 2003, mentioned in text, not illus.
Anfam, David. "Eye to Eye with Philip Guston." RA Magazine, Winter 2003, pp. 34–38, illus. in color p. 37
Siegel, Lee. "The Artful Dodger: Philip Guston was Misunderstood—But Why?" Slate Magazine, December 9, 2003, illus. in color in article and color image included as part of slide show attached to article
Auping, Michael. Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Philip Guston Retrospective. Exh. cat. London: Thames & Hudson, 2003, illus. in color Plate 4, unpaginated (but would be p. 101) and briefly mentioned in text p. 75 (Joseph Rishel essay)
Dijkstra, Bram. American Expressionism: Art and Social Change 1920–1950. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2003, illus. in color Plate 196 p. 229; discussed p. 227, work listed as being from 1937-38
Anfam, David. The Art of Philip Guston 1913–1980. Brochure. Royal Academy of Arts, 2004, illus. in color
Graham-Dixon, Andrew. "Philip Guston at the Royal Academy." Sunday Telegraph (London), January 25, 2004, mentioned in text
Philip Guston: Odd Man Out. BBC Four, January 28, 2004. Television, detail illus. in color
Philip Guston: Modernism and Revolutionary Politics in the 1930s and 1940s. Brochure. Royal Academy of Arts, 2004, illus. in color
Rubinstein, Raphael. "Philip Guston: Some Thoughts." Art in America, March 2004, illus. in color p. 84 and mentioned in text pp. 85, 86 and 87
McHardy, Fiona. The Art of Philip Guston. Education guide. Royal Academy of Arts, 2004, illus. in color p. 3
Facing Fascism: New York & the Spanish Civil War. Exh. cat. New York: Museum of the City of New York, 2007, illus. in b&w p. 104
Botelho, Manuel. Guston em contexto: até ao regresso da figura. Lisbon: Livros Vendaval, 2007, illus. in color p. 36
Lahey, Anita. "Les annees 1930: L'art, la biologie et le pouvoir." Vernissage: The Magazine of the National Gallery of Canada, Summer 2008, illus. in color p. 17
Boime, Al. "Breaking Open the Wall: The Morelia Mural of Guston, Kadish and Langsner." Burlington Magazine, July 2008, mentioned in text p. 459, not illus.
The 1930s: The Making of 'The New Man'. Exh. cat. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 2008, cat. no. 196, illus. in color p. 321
Salisbury, Stephan. "Art Museum reaps a bonanza." Philadelphia Inquirer, July 22, 2011, pp. A1, A10, illus. in color p. A10
Philip Guston: Late Paintings. Exh. cat. Edinburgh: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2012, illus. in color (unpaginated)
Encounters with the 1930s. Exh. cat. Madrid: Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, 2012, Illus. in color p. 361
Pfeiffer, Ingrid, and Max Hollein, eds. Philip Guston Das Grosse Spatwerk/Late Works. Exh. cat. Cologne: Strzeleckibooks, 2013, illus. in color fig. 6 p. 17 (Ingrid Pfeiffer essay) and mentioned in text pp. 16 (English)/17 (German) and 140 (English)/139 (German)
Sylvester, David. Ein Gespräch mit Philip Guston. NichtSoKleineBibliothek 8. Bern: Piet Meyer Verlag, 2013, illus. in color p. 127, illus. no. 45
Borja-Villel, Manuel, and Rosario Peiró. The Thirties: Theater of Cruelty, Place of Encounter. Madrid: Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, 2013, illus. in color p. 40
Miller, Peter Benson, ed. Go Figure! New Perspectives on Guston. New York: American Academy in Rome; New York Review of Books, 2014, mentioned in text pp. 83, and 85-87, not illus.
Wooten, Nicholas. "1930s a Tumultuous Time: Art Institute Show Features Eclectic Group of Paintings." Chicago Tribune, June 2, 2016, p. 4, mentioned in text, not illus.
L'objet d'art hors-serie. "The Age of Anxiety: La peinture americaine des annees 1930." October 2016, illus. in color p. 35
America After the Fall: Painting in the 1930s. Exh. cat. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2016, cat. no. 19, Fig. 17, illus. in color p. 136, described in text p. 135
La peinture Américaine des années 1930: The Age of Anxiety. Exh. cat. Paris: Musées d'Orsay et de l'Orangerie, 2016, cat. 18, illus. in color Fig. 82 p. 136
Mayer, Musa. Night Studio: A Memoir of Philip Guston. 1988. Reprint, Munich: Sieveking Verlag; Zurich: Hauser & Wirth, 2016, illus. no. 17, illus. in color p. 43
Prodger, Michael. "How the Ravages of the Great Depression Gave American Painters a Purpose." New Statesman, March 4, 2017, mentioned in text, not illus.
Street, Ben. "America After the Fall: Painting in the 1930s: An Introduction to the Exhibition for Teachers and Students." Royal Academy of Arts: Exhibition in Focus, 2017, illus. in color p. 19, discussed in text pp. 18-20
Dafoe, Taylor. "Were the Mexican Muralists America's Greatest Street Artists? A New Whitney Show Will Examine Their Too-Long-Ignored Legacy" artnet News, November 14, 2019. Online, illus. in color
Artfix Daily. "'Vida Americana: Mexican Muralists Remake American Art, 1925-1945' Debuts at The Whitney This Winter." January 13, 2020. Online, illus. in color
Angeleti, Gabriella. "Beyond the wall: a golden period of exchange between Mexican and US artists is revisited in new show." Art Newspaper, February 10, 2020. Online, illus. in color
Sierra, Sonia. "Mujeres y hombres de EU que crearon murales bajo el influjo de mexicanos." El Universal, February 14, 2020. Online, illus. in color as part of an installation photo
Pulso Diario de San Luis (Mexico). "Muralistas mexicanos inspiran a artistas estadounidenses." February 16, 2020. Online, mentioned in text, not illus.
El Diario Yucatan (Mexico). "Saltaron el muro sin problemas." February 17, 2020. Online, mentioned in text, not illus.
Cotter, Holland. "How Mexico's Muralists Lit a Fire Under U.S. Artists." The New York Times, February 20, 2020. Online, illus. in color
Budick, Ariella. "Modernism via Mexico in Vida Americana at the Whitney." Financial Times (London), March 6, 2020. Online, illus. in color and mentioned in text
Arn, Jackson. "How the Mexican Revolution Changed Modern Art in America." Frieze, April 21, 2020. Online, illus. in color
Goldstein, Caroline. "An Acclaimed Show at the Whitney Spotlights How Mexican Muralists Shaped US Modernism--See Images Here." artnet, April 24, 2020. Online, illus. in color
Laster, Paul. "Philip Guston: A Life Lived Through Art." Art & Object (Chapel Hill), July 21, 2020. Online, illus. in color and mentioned in text
Schwendener, Martha. "Why Philip Guston Can Still Provoke Such Furor, and Passion." The New York Times, October 2, 2020. Online, illus. in color as part of an installation photo and mentioned in text
Schwendener, Martha. "Why Philip Guston Still Provokes a Furor." The New York Times, October 3, 2020, p. C5, illus. in color and mentioned in text
Delgado, Jérôme. "Doit-on peindre et exposer la violence?" Le Devoir (Montreal), October 10, 2020. Online, illus. in color
Mcllhagga, Samuel. "Philip Guston's Controversial Embrace of Figuration Still Shapes His Market." Artsy, November 3, 2020. Online, illus. in color
Miranda, Carolina A. "Column: The art show of 2020 and how it unearthed the Mexican influences in American art." Los Angeles Times, December 10, 2020. Online, illus. in color
Cooper, Harry, Mark Godfrey, Alison de Lima Greene, and Kate Nesin. Philip Guston Now. Exh. cat. Washington D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 2020, illus. in color Plate 8 p. 21 and mentioned in text pp. 11-12, 185, 224, 225, 240n47, and 240n50
Storr, Robert. Philip Guston: A Life Spent Painting. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2020, No. 8 illus. in color p. 23 and mentioned in text pp. 22, 24 and 284
Vida Americana: Mexican Muralists Remake American Art, 1925-1945. Exh. cat. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 2020., plate 30 illus. in color p. 77
Harris, Gareth. "Q&A: Philip Guston's daughter Musa Mayer on her new book and the uproar surrounding the artist's postponed show." Art Newspaper, February 4, 2021. Online, mentioned in text, not illus.
Eyre, Hermione. "The truth about my father, Philip Guston." Spectator Australia, March 13, 2021. Online, mentioned in text, not illus.
Baker, R.C. "Tragicomic Soothsayer: Philip Guston Rides Again." Village Voice, October 22, 2021. Online., mentioned in text, not illus.
Mayer, Musa. Philip Guston. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2021, illus. in color and mentioned in text p. 11